Dialogue - Urdu

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Vocabulary

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مبارکباد mubarak baad congratulations, greetings
منگنی mangni engagement ceremony
بھائی bhai brother
اگلے aglay next
ہفتہ Hafta Saturday
فاصلہ fasla far-ness, distance
پڑوسی parosi neighbor(s)
قریب qareeb close, near
رشتہ دار rishta dar relative, relatives
ایسا aisa like this, such

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus Of This Lesson Is Present Tense

علی، میرے بھائی کی منگنی کی تقریب اگلے ہفتے کے لئے مقرر کی گئی ہے. تم آ سکتے ہو نا؟
Ali, meray bhai ki mangni ki taqreeb aglay haftay ky liye muqarar ki gai hai. Tum aa saktay ho na?

"Ali, my brother's engagement ceremony has been fixed for next Saturday. You can come right?"


In this lesson, we will learn how to:

  1. Use the present and future tense.
  2. Use statement, negation, question with the present tense
  3. Use the word meaning "like this," "such" + noun

1. Present Tense and Future Tense.


The present tense is the tense most commonly used in colloquial Urdu.

Each verb has to be conjugated according to the gender and number of the subject and to the grade of politeness of the speech.

Let's take a look at a verb used in the dialogue, which is شرکت کر رہا (shirkat ker raha), meaning "(he) is participating." This form is singular and masculine. If there are plural men, then the verb gets modified to شرکت کر رہے (shirkat ker rahay), meaning "are participating." If there is one woman, the verb gets modified as شرکت کر رہی (shirak ker rahi), meaning "(she) is participating." The same phrase is used if there are plural women. So here you can clearly see that the main verb شرکت کر (shirkat ker), meaning "to participate," remains the same for all the cases. The part after شرکت کر gets modified based on the gender and number of people.

So, you just take the stem of the verb, without the نا (-na) at the end. Urdu verbs always end with a na, so the stem of the verb in the sentence is always formed by removing the نا (na)*. Then you add the "-ing" part, رہا (raha), if referring to a man, and رہی (rahi), if referring to a woman. Finally you add the verb "to be":

Urdu

Romanization

English

ہے

hai

"is"

ہیں

haiN

"you/ they are"

"you are" (sing.polite)

"is" (polite)

ہوں

huN

"am"

ہو

ho

"you are" informal

*There are also some exceptions, like the verb in the dialogue آ, Aa, meaning "to come."  Aa is the verb, and it gets modified according to the gender and number of people. If there is a single man, you will use آ رہا (aa raha), meaning "he is coming." If it's plural men, you will use آ رہے (aa rahay) meaning "they are coming." If it's a single woman, you will use آ رہی (aa rahi) meaning "she is coming." If it's plural women, you will use آ رہیں(aa rahein) meaning "they have come."

Let's see now the future tense.

The following table represents an example of the verb from the future tense.

Urdu

Romanization

English

Notes

کروں گا

Karun ga

I will do (masculine)

First person

کروں گی

Karun gi

I will do (feminine)

First person

کرو گے

 

Karo gay

You will do (masculine)

Second  person singular & plural, informal

کرو گی

Karo gi

You will do (feminine)

Second person singular & plural, informal

کرے گا

Karay ga

He will do (masculine)

Third person singular, informal

کرے گی

Karay gi

She will do (feminine)

Third person singular, informal

کریں گے

Karain gay

"They will do"

"He will do" (polite)

"You will do" (masculine)

"We will do" (masculine)

Third person plural, (informal and formal)

or

Second person singular, formal

Or

First person plural, formal & informal

کریں گی

Karain gi

"They will  do"

"She will  do" (polite)

"You will do" (feminine)

"We will do" (feminine)

Third person plural, informal & formal

or

Second person singular, formal
Or
First person plural, formal & informal

The example in the above table uses the verb کرنا (karna) "to do." The stem of the word kerna, which is کر (kar-), remains the same, while the ending (-ay / -ein / -na / -o) changes depending on the person. The particle (ga / gi / gay / gi ) changes according to the gender.

Stem of the verb (verb without -na) + personal ending + gender particle

Personal endings table:

Urdu

Romanization

Explanation

نا

-na

first person singular, "I"

تم

-o

Third person singular, informal, "he" or "she"

آپ

-ein

Third person singular, formal, "he" or "she"

وه

-ein

third person singular, formal and informal, "they"

Particles for number, gender and level of politeness table:

Urdu

Romanization

Number

Gender

Level

گا

ga

singular

masculine

informal

گی

gi

singular

feminine

informal

گے

gay

plural

masculine

informal

singular

masculine

formal

گیں

gein

plural

feminine

informal

singular

feminine

formal

Examples:

  1. میں دوپہر کا کھانا کھا رہا ہوں.
    Mei dopehar ka khana kha raha hun.

    "I am eating lunch." (masculine)
  2. لڑکے ہاکی کھیل رہے ہیں.
    Larkay hockey khail rahay hain.
    "Boys are playing hockey."

2. Statement, negation, question with the present tense


English

Romanization

Note

Urdu

"You eat an apple."

Aap saib khatay ho.

statement

.آپ سیب کھاتے ہو

"You don't eat an apple."

Aap saib nahi khatay ho.

negation

.آپ سیب نہیں کھاتے ہو

"Do you eat an apple?"

Kia aap saib khatay ho?

question

کیا آپ سیب کھاتے ہو؟

In order to turn down an offer by someone or to simply say "no" to him/her, you can use the simple word نہیں (nahi), meaning "no." Similarly, in order to negate someone, you can also say the same word. In order to be more polite and formal, you can say نہیں ایسا نہیں ہے (nahi aisa nahi hai) "No, it's not like that." In this case, ایسا نہیں ہے (aisa nahi hai) is added after the word نہیں (nahi).

There are many ways to form question sentences, depending on the type of question and subject of the question. The most commonly used word is کیا (kia), meaning "what." It is added at the start of each question sentence. For example, if you want to ask a friend to watch a movie with you, you will say کیا تم میرے ساتھ فلم دیکھو گے؟ (kia tum meray sath film daikho gay?) "Would you like to watch movie with me?" The general sentence structure in question sentences is Question word (کیا) + Thing to be done + The sentence most probably ending with the Urdu word گے / گی / گیں. The word کیا (kia) remains the same in all the sentences, but the ending of the sentence can change depending on the gender and whether it's singular or plural.

Examples:

  1. علی : آپ آج بیمار ہیں؟ عمر: نہیں /  نہیں ایسا نہیں ہے
    Ali: Aap aaj beemar hain? Umer: Nahi. / Nahi, aisa nahi hai.

    "Ali : Are you sick today?  Umer: No. / No, it's not like that."
  2. کیا آپ پارٹی میں آئیں گے؟
    Kia aap party mei ayein gay?
    "Would you come to the party?"

3. "Like this," "such" + noun


The word ایسا (aisa) is used in two ways in Urdu language: either as an adjective or as an adverb. For example, ایسا شاندار موسم ہے (aisa shandar mosam hai) "such a wonderful weather." In this sentence, the word ایسا (aisa) is used as adjective. Here is the example where the word ایسا is used as adverb. For example, مجهے ایسی گاڑی چاہیے (mujhay aisi gari chahiye) "I want a car like this."

The word ایسا is used for singular masculine nouns. For plural masculine nouns, the word changes to ایسے (aisay). For singular and plural feminine nouns, it is ایسی (aisi).

Examples:

  1. ایسا باکمال کهلاڑی ہے
    Aisa bakamal khilari hai.
    "Such a wonderful player."
  2. یہ گھر اچھا ہے. مجهے ایسا ہی گھر چاہیے
    Yeh ghar acha hai. Mujhay aisa hi ghar chahiye.
    "This house is good. I want such a home. "

Examples from the Dialogue

  1. ان کے رشتہ دار کراچی میں رہتے ہیں اس لیے سفر کرنے کے لئے فاصلہ بہت ذیاده ہے.
    Unn ky rishtadar karachi mei rehtay hain iss liye safar kernay ky liye fasla bohat ziada hai
    .
    "Their relatives live in Karachi, so the distance is too great to make the trip."
  2. ٹھیک ہے. میں ضرور انهیں مبارکباد دینے جاؤں گا. تمہارے بھائی کی منگیتر کے رشتہ دار نہیں آ رہے ہیں؟
    Theek hai. Mei zarur inhein mubarak baad denay jao ga. Tumharay bhai ki mangetar ky rishta dar nahi aa rahay hain?

    "Okay. I will definitely go to congratulate him. Your brother's fiance's relatives aren't coming?"

Sample Sentences


  1. آپ آ سکتی ہیں؟
    Aap aa sakti hain?

    "Can you come?"
  2. آج کوئی بس نہیں آ ئے گی. ایسا کیوں ہے؟
    Aaj koi bus nahi ayay gi. Aisa kyun hai?

    "No bus will come today. Why is that?"
  3. آپ کی سالگره کی تقریب میں کون شرکت کرے گی؟
    Aap ki salgirah ki taqreeb mei kaun shirkat keray gi?

    "Who will participate in your birthday party?"

Cultural Insights

Families in Pakistan


 

Pakistani family structure is different from Western family structure. Parents live together with their children and their grandchildren. The combined family system is very prevalent in the villages. In the cities, even though the Western values are quickly being adopted, the combined family system is still present.

Families in Pakistan normally gather at all religious festivals celebrated throughout the year. Apart from religious festivals, weddings and funerals are the two occasions where not only immediate and extended families but friends and neighbors also participate. Apart from these events, on birthday parties, local festivals, and picnics are the events where families come together and enjoy.

Western cultures tend to have a nuclear family arrangement, where children only see their parents on rare occasions. But in Pakistan, the system is completely opposite. Even on small occasions, the whole family comes together. For foreigners, it might appear unusual to them, and they might feel uncomfortable as well. Private space is not readily available in families in Pakistan. So, foreigners should be patient and try to understand the family dynamics in Pakistan.

Useful expression

  1. خاندان
    Khandan

    "Family"

Lesson Transcript

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INTRODUCTION
Becky: Hi everyone, and welcome back to UrduPod101.com. This is Beginner Season 1, Lesson 1 - Making Plans to Party in Pakistan. Becky here.
Hamza: السلام علیکم (Assalam u alaikum). I'm Hamza.
Becky: In this lesson, you’ll learn about the present tense. The conversation takes place at a park.
Hamza: It's between Asha and Ali.
Becky: The speakers are friends, so they’ll speak informal Urdu. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
آشا: علی، میرے بھائی کی منگنی کی تقریب اگلے ہفتے کے لئے مقرر کی گئی ہے. تم آ سکتے ہو نا؟
علی: اگلے ہفتے؟ جی ہاں، بالکل میں آئوں گا. کون شرکت کر رہا ہے ؟
آشا: ہمارے قریبی رشتہ دار- چچا، چچی، ان کے خاندان، یہاں کے پڑوسی، اور میرے بھائی اور میرے دوست.
علی: ٹھیک ہے. میں ضرور انهیں مبارکباد دینے جاؤں گا. تمہارے بھائی کی منگیتر کے رشتہ دار نہیں آ رہے ہیں؟
آشا: اوہ ہاں، وہ بھی آ رہے ہیں لیکن صرف تین.
علی: ایسا کیوں ہے؟
آشا: ان کے رشتہ دار کراچی میں رہتے ہیں اس لیے سفر کرنے کے لئے فاصلہ بہت ذیاده ہے.
Becky: Listen to the conversation one time slowly.
آشا: علی، میرے بھائی کی منگنی کی تقریب اگلے ہفتے کے لئے مقرر کی گئی ہے. تم آ سکتے ہو نا؟
علی: اگلے ہفتے؟ جی ہاں، بالکل میں آئوں گا. کون شرکت کر رہا ہے ؟
آشا: ہمارے قریبی رشتہ دار- چچا، چچی، ان کے خاندان، یہاں کے پڑوسی، اور میرے بھائی اور میرے دوست.
علی: ٹھیک ہے. میں ضرور انهیں مبارکباد دینے جاؤں گا. تمہارے بھائی کی منگیتر کے رشتہ دار نہیں آ رہے ہیں؟
آشا: اوہ ہاں، وہ بھی آ رہے ہیں لیکن صرف تین.
علی: ایسا کیوں ہے؟
آشا: ان کے رشتہ دار کراچی میں رہتے ہیں اس لیے سفر کرنے کے لئے فاصلہ بہت ذیاده ہے.
Becky: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Asha: Ali, my brother's engagement ceremony has been fixed for next Saturday. You can come right?
Ali: Next Saturday? Yes, of course I will. Who is attending?
Asha: Our close relatives—uncles, aunts, their families, our neighbors here, and my brothers and my friends.
Ali: Okay. I will definitely go to congratulate him. Your brother's fiance's relatives aren't coming?
Asha: Oh yes, they're coming too, but only three of them.
Ali: Why is that?
Asha: Their relatives live in Karachi, so the distance is too great to make the trip.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Becky: Hamza, it looks like families and family ties are kept in high regard in Pakistan.
Hamza: Right, Pakistani family structure is different from Western family structure. Parents live together with their children and their grandchildren, especially in the countryside.
Becky: And do families live together in the bigger cities as well?
Hamza: Even though the Western values are quickly being adopted, the combined family system is still present.
Becky: When do families usually gather?
Hamza: Apart from religious festivals, families gather for weddings, funerals, and any special celebration.
Becky: I see. In general, we can say that the Pakistani system is almost opposite to the Western one.
Hamza: Right, even on small occasions, the whole family comes together. For foreigners, it might appear unusual to them, and they might feel uncomfortable as well. Private space is not readily available in families in Pakistan.
Becky: Listeners if you visit Pakistan, keep in mind these different family dynamics! By the way, what’s the Urdu word for “family?”
Hamza: خاندان (Khandan)
Becky: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Becky: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Hamza: فاصلہ [natural native speed]
Becky: far-ness, distance
Hamza: فاصلہ[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: فاصلہ [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: ایسا [natural native speed]
Becky: like this, such
Hamza: ایسا[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: ایسا [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: مبارکباد [natural native speed]
Becky: congratulations, greetings
Hamza: مبارکباد[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: مبارکباد [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: پڑوسی [natural native speed]
Becky: neighbor(s)
Hamza: پڑوسی[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: پڑوسی [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: رشتہ دار [natural native speed]
Becky: relative, relatives
Hamza: رشتہ دار[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: رشتہ دار [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: اگلے [natural native speed]
Becky: next
Hamza: اگلے[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: اگلے [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: ہفتہ [natural native speed]
Becky: Saturday
Hamza: ہفتہ[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: ہفتہ [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: بھائی [natural native speed]
Becky: brother
Hamza: بھائی[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: بھائی [natural native speed]
Becky: Next we have...
Hamza: منگنی [natural native speed]
Becky: engagement ceremony
Hamza: منگنی[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: منگنی [natural native speed]
Becky: And last...
Hamza: قریب [natural native speed]
Becky: close, near
Hamza: قریب[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: قریب [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Becky: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is...
Hamza: منگنی
Becky: meaning "engagement."
Hamza: This word is used as a feminine noun in everyday discussion. It refers to a pre-marriage ceremony that marks the start of a relationship between a couple.
Becky: Is engagement always necessary in Pakistan before getting married?
Hamza: No, many people skip the engagement ceremony.
Becky: Can you give us an example using this word?
Hamza: Sure. For example, you can say, آپ کی منگنی کب ہے؟
Becky: ...which means "When is your engagement?"
Becky: Okay, what's the next word?
Hamza: پڑوسی
Becky: meaning "neighbor or neighbors."
Hamza: This word is a masculine noun. It can be used both as singular and plural.
Becky: Is there anything unique about this word?
Hamza: Probably its meaning: in Pakistan, neighbors are an important part of everyday life. They are invited to family functions, dishes are often exchanged with neighbors on special occasions, and people meet frequently with their neighbors. Also Parosi in Pakistan refers not only to people living next door, but also people living on the same street, same block, or often in the same village.
Becky: That’s good to know! Can you give us an example using this word?
Hamza: Sure. For example, you can say, میرے پڑوسی اچھے ہیں.
Becky: ...which means "My neighbours are good. "
Becky: Okay, what's the next word?
Hamza: مبارکباد
Becky: meaning "congratulations, greetings." It’s a masculine noun.
Hamza: You can use it when you want to congratulate someone on an achievement or occasion or on buying something new and expensive. It works in both formal and informal situations.
Becky: Can this word be paired with a verb?
Hamza: The verb that often gets paired with this noun is ہو (ho). So the phrase becomes مبارکباد ہو (Mubarak baad ho), meaning “congratulations.”
Becky: Can you give us a sample sentence using this word?
Hamza: Sure. For example, you can say, آپ کو شادی کی مبارک باد ہو.
Becky: ...which means "Congratulations on your wedding."
Becky: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Becky: In this lesson, you'll learn about the present and future tense. The present tense is the tense most commonly used in colloquial Urdu.
Hamza: Right, each verb has to be conjugated according to the gender and number of the subject and to the grade of politeness of the speech.
Becky: Let's take a look at a verb used in the dialogue.
Hamza: Let’s consider شرکت کر رہا (shirkat ker raha).
Becky: Meaning “he is participating.” This form is singular and masculine
Hamza: If there are more men, then the verb gets modified to شرکت کر رہے (shirkat ker rahay).
Becky: Meaning “they are participating.”
Hamza: If there is one woman, the verb gets modified to شرکت کر رہی (shirak ker rahi).
Becky: Meaning “she is participating.” The form doesn’t change if there are more women. Let’s see how to form this tense.
Hamza: As you can see, the main verb شرکت کر (shirkat ker)...
Becky: meaning “to participate”
Hamza: ...remains the same for all cases. The part after شرکت کر gets modified based on the gender and number of people.
Becky: So, you just take the stem of the verb and add the “-ing” part.
Hamza: Right. To find the stem of a verb, you drop نا (-na) at the end of the verb. Then, you add the “-ing” part, which is رہا (raha), if referring to a man, and رہی (rahi), if referring to a woman.
Becky: Finally, you add the verb “to be.”
Hamza: For example, میں دوپہر کا کھانا کھا رہا ہوں. (Mei dopehar ka khana kha raha hun.)
Becky: Which means “I am eating lunch.” This sentence refers to a masculine subject.
Hamza: Here’s another example: لڑکے ہاکی کھیل رہے ہیں. (Larkay hockey khail rahay hain.)
Becky: Meaning “Boys are playing hockey.” Ok, let’s quickly see the future tense and how it’s formed.
Hamza: In the case of the future, you take the stem of the verb and add the right ending, depending on the person and the particle for gender.
Becky: For example, “I will do” in masculine form is...
Hamza: کروں گا (Karun ga).
Becky: Let’s break it down.
Hamza: First, there’s the stem کر (kar-) from the verb کرنا (karna).
Becky: Meaning “to do.”
Hamza: Then there’s the personal ending for the first person نا (-na) and finally the singular masculine particle گا (ga).
Becky: Ok, the next topic for this lesson is about statement, negation, and questions with the present tense. Let’s consider the Urdu sentence for “You eat an apple,” which is...
Hamza: آپ سیب کھاتے ہو. (Aap saib khatay ho.) To negate it, you just have to add the word نہیں (nahi), meaning “no.”
Becky: So the sentence becomes...
Hamza: آپ سیب نہیں کھاتے ہو. (Aap saib nahi khatay ho.)
Becky: which means “You don’t eat an apple.” How do we make this sentence a question?
Hamza: There are many ways to form questions, depending on the type of question and subject of the question. The most commonly used word is کیا (kia), meaning “what.” It’s added at the start of each question sentence, so we get کیا آپ سیب کھاتے ہو. (Kia aap saib khatay ho?)
Becky: meaning “Do you eat an apple?” Ok. The final topic of this lesson is the word meaning “like this,” “such.”
Hamza: In Urdu, this word is ایسا (aisa).
Becky: It’s used in two ways: either as an adjective or as an adverb. Hamza, could you give us an example?
Hamza: ایسا شاندار موسم ہے
Becky: ...which means “such wonderful weather.” In this case, it’s used as an adjective. Let’s see an example where it’s used as an adverb.
Hamza: For example, مجهے ایسی گاڑی چاہیے
Becky: Which means “I want a car like this.”
Hamza: As an adjective, ایسا is used for singular masculine nouns. For plural masculine nouns, it changes to ایسے (aisay). For singular and plural feminine nouns, it’s ایسی (aisi).

Outro

Becky: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Hamza: پهر ملیں گے! (Phir milenge!)