Dialogue - Urdu

Hide

Vocabulary

Hide
ادب adab literature
رہائشی rehaishi resident
خاص طور پر khas tor per particularly, specially
آگے بڑھنا agay berhna move forward
دیکھ بھال daikh bhaal care
پڑهنا perhna study
پسند کرنا pasand karna like
تاریخ tareekh history, date
تعارف taruf introduction
گزشتہ guzishta last

Lesson Notes

Hide

Grammar

The Focus Of This Lesson Is Describing your Interests and Goals using the Active Voice

میں نے حال ہی میں اپنے کالج کی تعلیم مکمل کی ہے، اور مجهے ہوٹل کی سروس اور انتظام میں کام کرنا پسند ہے.
Mei nay haal hi mein apnay college ki taleem mukamal ki hai, aur mujhay hotel ki service aur intezaam mein kam kerna pasand hai.

"I have recently completed my college studies, and I like working in hotel service and management."


In this lesson, we will learn how to:

  1.     Compare the passive voice and active voice
  2.     Write sentences in active voice-sentence pattern
  3.     Use vocabulary for talking about interests and goals

1. How to Compare the Passive Voice and Active Voice


In Urdu there are several ways of making a sentence passive. This is most common when talking about likes and dislikes.

In this lesson, we focus on the present tense, talking about likes and dislikes in an active voice, and using different verb conjugations.

When talking about likes and dislikes in Urdu, we usually use the format:

1) I like doing X

[pronoun  verb-present continuous form ]

[mujhay verb-Na pasand hai]

For example:

  1. مجھے گانا پسند ہے
    Mujhay gana pasand hai.
    "I like singing." (Literally: "Singing is appealing to me.")

This is the passive voice. The pronoun is inflected and becomes the object instead of the subject (مجھے mujhay "Me" instead of میں main "I"). پسند pasand, which means "like," is akin to a noun, and the only verb applied is the intransitive ہے hai ("is") from ہونا hona ("to be"). The second object, گانا "singing," is in the present continuous form of the verb.

The same can be expressed in an active voice, in the simple present tense, and where the verb is in the infinitive form, in the following way:

2) I like to do X.

[pronoun X verb-infinitive form ]

[pronoun X verb-infinitive form pasand kerta hun]

For example:

  1. میں گانا پسند کرتا ہوں
    Main gana pasand kerta hun.
    "I like to sing."

Here the pronoun is active ("I," not "me"), and the main verb is transitive (کرنا kerna - "to do").

This type of sentence is better suited for describing your hobbies and interests in formal situations and for taking a more active tone when describing things. The regular way of talking about likes makes the personal pronoun (میں main- "I") into the object (مجھے Mujhay - "Me"), which is the passive way of talking about your likes, even though that is the common way. Switching to the present continuous tense makes the tone more active.

Beyond just talking about your likes, this type of sentence is also used to describe your skills and process of working, how you work, etc., and is particularly suited to professional situations, where we use the format "I like to do X" to talk about work habits and discipline as well.

2. How to Write Sentences in Present Continuous Tense for "liking."


The basic sentence structure is the following:

                                                                                                                                [ "I" + X verb + "like to."]

[میں  X verb-infinitive پسند کرتا ہوں ]
[Mei X verb-infinitive pasand kerta hun] (first-person singular, masculine)

or

[میں  X verb-infinitive پسند کرتی ہوں. ]

[Mei X verb-infinitive pasand kartii huun] (first-person singular, feminine)

 

[ "We" + X verb + "like to."]

[ہم  X verb-infinitive پسند کرتے ہیں. ]

[Hum X verb-infinitive pasand karte hain] (first-person plural)

 

پسند
pasand
"like"

 

کرنا
kerna
"to do"


ہوں
hun
"am" (in this case "do" in the first person)

The object [X] has to be in the infinitive form for verbs, and if the object is a noun, it has to be paired with a transitive verb in the infinitive form, usually کرنا (kerna) "to do."

  1. Object is a verb: Verb-infinitive [verb root-Naa]
  2. Object is a noun: Noun + verb infinitive [noun + verb root-Naa]

Here are some examples with verb objects:

  1.   پڑھنا
    perhna

    "to read"
  2. لکھنا
    likhna

    "to write"
  3. بنانا
    banana

    "to build/make"
  4. لگانا
    lagana

    "to take/stick"

Here are some examples with noun-verb objects:

  1. ورزش کرنا
    warzish kerna ("do exercise")
    "to exercise"
  2. خلاصہ کرنا
    Khulasa kerna "(to summarize")
    "to summarize"
  3. مصوری کرنا
    musawari kerna ("make painting")
    "to paint"
  4. بلاگ لکهنا
    blog Likhna ("write blog")
    "to blog"
  5. خیال رکهنا
    khayal rakhna ("do service")
    "to serve/to care for"
  6. جانچ کرنا
    janch kerna ("do checking")
    "to check/inspect"

In many cases, the verb exists on its own, but it can sometimes be changed to a noun form and combined with the verb کرنا kerna. In the examples below, "sewing" or "stitching" سینا seena is an action that is awkward to use in the continuous tense "I like sewing," so we change it to a noun سیلائی seelai ("sewing/stitching"), used along with کرنا kerna (to do), and the sentence changes to "I like to sew/stitch." It's clear that you are referring to many tasks, not one prolonged action of sewing.

Since the infinitive form for verbs in Urdu is the same as the present tense conjugation-"to do" and "doing" are both کرنا kerna-this distinction has to be made. These are nuances particular to Urdu grammar as well as it being idiomatic, so you will develop an instinct for where it is better to use this over time.

- seena    سینا ("sewing/stitching") → سیلائی کرنا seelai kerna ("to do sewing/stitching"): "To Sew/Stitch"

- dorna    دوڑنا ("running") → دوڑ لگانا dor lagana ("to go running"): "To run"

- khareeda    خریدنا ("buying") → خریداری کرنا khareedari kerna ("to do shopping"): "To shop"

- jhagarna    جهگڑنا ("arguing/fighting") → جهگڑا کرنا jhagra kerna ("to do fight/argue"): "To argue/fight"

For example:

  1. میں لکھنا پسند کرتی ہوں
    Mei likhna pasand kerti hun.
    (feminine)
    "I like to write."
  2. میں ورزش کرنا پسند کرتا ہوں.
    Mei warzish kerna pasand kerta hun.
    (masculine)
    "I like to exercise."
  3. میں بلا وجہ جهگڑا کرنا پسند نہیں کرتا ہوں
    Mei bilawajah jhagra kerna pasand nahi kerta hun.
    (masculine)
    "I don't like to get into fights unnecessarily."

3. How to Use Vocabulary for Talking About Interests and Goals


The following are similar formats and words used for talking about goals and interests.

پسند
pasand

"like," "taste"

For example:

  1. میں کام شروع کرنے سے پہلے مکمل طور پر تحقیق کرنا پسند کرتا ہوں
    Mei kam shru kernay say pehlay mukamal tor per tehqeeq kerna pasand kerta hun. (masculine)
    "I like to research fully before starting the task."

امید
umeed

"desire," "ambition"

For example:

  1. میں اپنی کمپنی بنانے کی امید رکهتا ہوں 
    Mei apni company bananay ki umeed rakhta hun.
    (masculine)
    "I hope to create my own company" (Lit. "I nurse the desire of creating my own company").

خواہش
khawahish

"wish"

For example:

  1. امتحان کے بعد آپ کی کیا کرنے کی خواہش ہے؟ 
    Imtehan ky baad aap ki kia kernay ki khawahish hai?
    "
    What do you wish to do after your exams?"

اراده
irada

"intention"

For example:

  1. میرا ارادہ ٹیم کے تعلقات کو مضبوط بنانے کا ہے
    Mera irada team ky taluqaat ko mazboot bananay ka hai.

    "My intention is to make the team bonding stronger."

Examples from the Dialogue

  1. یہ بھی جانا جاتا ہے کہ آپ اپنے ملازمین کی اچھی دیکھ بھال کرتے ہیں، نئے آنے والوں کی اچهی تربیت کرتے ہیں، اور اگر وه محنت کریں تو ان کو آگے بڑھنے کے مواقع دیتے ہیں.
    Yeh bhi jana jata hai ky aap apnay mulazmeen ki achi daikh bhaal kertay hain, naiye anay walon ki achi tarbiat kertay hain, aur agr woh mehnat karein tou unn ko agay berhnay ky mawaqay detay hain.

    "It is also known that you take good care of your employees, train new entrants well, and allow them opportunities to advance if they work hard."

Sample Sentences


  1. میں لکھنا پسند کرتی ہوں
    Mei likhna pasand kerti hun.

    "I like to write."(feminine)
  2. میں ورزش کرنا پسند کرتا ہوں
    Mei warzish kerna pasand kerta hun.

    "I like to exercise." (instead of "I like exercising") (masculine)
  3. میں بلا وجہ جهگڑا کرنا پسند نہیں کرتا ہوں
    Mei bilawajah jhagra kerna pasand nahi kerta hun.
    "I don't like to get into fights unnecessarily." (masculine)

 

Cultural Insights

College education in Pakistan


Post-secondary education in Pakistan follows the older British system that it was modeled after. Though there are also universities, and colleges within universities, as a whole, people in Pakistan commonly refer to post-secondary education as "college." Being in college or going to college is the same as attending a university in other countries. Generally, Bachelor studies last four years. From high school, students start specializing in particular fields: the Arts, Commerce, and Science. The Arts include mostly social sciences and humanities; Commerce is all economics, business, and statistics; and Sciences combine life and medical sciences and engineering. From 10th grade onwards students have to choose one of those fields and study only related subjects. This continues on in their bachelor's studies as well, where students can study and specialize in a subject within their chosen field. Because of this early division, it is generally quite difficult to switch fields later. Those studying History, for example, will not be able to switch to pre-medical studies in university easily. However, it is possible for Engineering graduates to study Business after their Bachelor degree is completed. This has become the new trend among young Pakistanis-to study engineering during their undergraduate years, and then enter an MBA program to go on to work in a multinational company.

Useful expression

  1. پاکستان میں کالج کی تعلیم
    Pakistan mei college ki taleem

    "College education in Pakistan"

 

Lesson Transcript

Hide
INTRODUCTION
Dana: Hi everyone, and welcome back to UrduPod101.com This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 1 - A Pakistani Job Interview. Dana here.
Hamza: السلام علیکم (Assalam u alaikum) I'm Hamza.
Dana: In this lesson, you’ll learn about describing your interests and goals. The conversation takes place in the city office of a company.
Hamza: It's between Hamza and Ali.
Dana: The speakers are employer and job applicant; therefore, they will speak formal Urdu. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
حمزہ: شروع کرتے ہیں، اپنا تعارف کروائیں.
علی: بالکل. میرا نام علی ہے. میں لاہور کا رہائشی ہوں.
علی: میں نے حال ہی میں اپنے کالج کی تعلیم مکمل کی ہے، اور مجهے ہوٹل کی سروس اور انتظام میں کام کرنا پسند ہے.
علی: گزشتہ ایک سال سے میں سروس کے عملے کے طور پر ایک عالی شان برانڈ کی دکان میں پارٹ ٹائم کام کر رہا ہوں، لہذا مجهے کسٹمر سروس کی ایک اچھی سمجھ ہے.
حمزہ: بہت اچها. آپ نے کالج میں کیا پڑها ہے؟
علی: انگریزی ادب
حمزہ: ٹھیک ہے. اور ایسا کیوں ہے کہ آپ خاص طور پر ہمارے ریستوران میں شامل ہونا چاہتے ہیں؟
علی: نہ صرف آپ کا ریستوران سب سے زیادہ مشہور اور معروف ریستورانوں میں سے ایک ہے، اس کی ایک طویل کامیاب تاریخ بهی ہے.
علی: یہ بھی جانا جاتا ہے کہ آپ اپنے ملازمین کی اچھی دیکھ بھال کرتے ہیں، نئے آنے والوں کی اچهی تربیت کرتے ہیں، اور اگر وه محنت کریں تو ان کو آگے بڑھنے کے مواقع دیتے ہیں.
علی: میں سیکھنے اور آگے بڑھنے میں دلچسپی رکھتا ہوں.
حمزہ: بہت اچها. ہم یقینی طور پر اپنے نوجوان عملے کو تربیت دینا پسند کرتے ہیں، اور توقع کرتے ہیں کہ وه اپنا کام اچهے طریقے سے کرنے میں لگ جائیں.
Dana: Listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Hamza: To start, please describe yourself.
Ali: Sure. My name is Ali. I’m a resident of Lahore.
Ali: I have recently completed my college studies, and I like working in hotel service and management.
Ali: For the last year I have been working part time at a luxury brand store as service staff, so I have a good understanding of customer service.
Hamza: Good. What did you study at college?
Ali: English literature.
Hamza: Okay. And why is it that you want to join our restaurant, particularly?
Ali: Not only is your restaurant one of the most famous and reputed, but it also has a long successful history.
Ali: It’s also known that you take good care of your employees, train new entrants well, and allow them opportunities to advance if they work hard.
Ali: I’m interested in learning and moving forward.
Hamza: Good. We definitely like to train our young staff and expect them to be dedicated to doing their work well.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Dana: In his self introduction, Ali was quick to talk about his education history.
Hamza: Yes, I think that’s an important thing to cover when you’re in a job interview.
Dana: I think so too! What can you tell us about higher education in Pakistan?
Hamza: Well, it was modelled after the British system, and it still follows that to this day. However, even though there are universities, and colleges within universities, people in Pakistan mainly refer to all post-secondary education as “college.”
Dana: How long do people study at college for?
Hamza: Bachelor studies generally last for four years.
Dana: And high schools are quite important for college studies?
Hamza: That’s right. In high school, students start specializing in different fields, and in the 10th grade, students choose a particular field, such as the arts, commerce or science, and they study only subjects related to that.
Dana: Can they change their field later if they change their mind?
Hamza: Hmm.. It’s pretty difficult to do! If you study history, for example, you wouldn’t be able to switch to pre-medical studies in university.
Dana: You have to choose wisely then!
Hamza: That’s right.
Dana: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Dana: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Hamza: تعارف [natural native speed]
Dana: introduction
Hamza: تعارف [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: تعارف [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: رہائشی [natural native speed]
Dana: resident
Hamza: رہائشی [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: رہائشی [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: پسند کرنا [natural native speed]
Dana: like
Hamza: پسند کرنا [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: پسند کرنا [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: گزشتہ [natural native speed]
Dana: last
Hamza: گزشتہ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: گزشتہ [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: پڑهنا [natural native speed]
Dana: study
Hamza: پڑهنا [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: پڑهنا [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: ادب [natural native speed]
Dana: literature
Hamza: ادب [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: ادب [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: خاص طور پر [natural native speed]
Dana: particularly, specially
Hamza: خاص طور پر [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: خاص طور پر [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: تاریخ [natural native speed]
Dana: history, date
Hamza: تاریخ [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: تاریخ [natural native speed]
Dana: Next we have..
Hamza: دیکھ بھال [natural native speed]
Dana: care
Hamza: دیکھ بھال [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: دیکھ بھال [natural native speed]
Dana: And last..
Hamza: آگے بڑھنا [natural native speed]
Dana: move forward
Hamza: آگے بڑھنا [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Hamza: آگے بڑھنا [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Dana: Let's have a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first phrase is..
Hamza: تعارف کروائیں
Dana: meaning "please introduce"
Hamza: This phrase has two important words: تعارف (taruf), meaning "introduction," and کروائیں (kerwaein), meaning "please do.”
Dana: It is usually used in formal meetings, interviews, and on the eve of meeting new people. However, you can also use it in informal situations as well.
Hamza: کروائیں (kerwaein) is key to making the phrase polite and it can be used for both men and women.
Dana: Can you give us an example using the whole phrase?
Hamza: Sure. For example, you can say.. اپنا تعارف کروائیں.
Dana: ..which means "Please introduce yourself."
Dana: Okay, what's the next phrase?
Hamza: اچھی سمجھ ہونا
Dana: meaning "have good understanding"
Hamza: This phrase is made up of اچھی (achi), which means "good" and is used for feminine things, and سمجھ ہونا (samajh hona), which means "to come to an understanding, to understand.”
Dana: You can use this phrase when you are admitting that you have good knowledge about a certain topic or concept, or when you want to praise someone for their extensive knowledge of a particular thing.
Hamza: You can also use it to mean that someone is wise.
Dana: Can you give us an example using this phrase?
Hamza: Sure. For example, you can say.. اس نوکری کے لئے، آپ کو معاشیات کی اچھی سمجھ ہونا ضروری ہے.
Dana: .. which means "For this job, you need a good understanding of Economics."
Dana: Okay, what's the next word?
Hamza: دلچسپی رکھنا
Dana: meaning "interested"
Hamza: This verb is used to express interest in something as well as personal interests, such as a hobby, and professional interests, such as a liking for research.
Dana: Can you give us an example using this word?
Hamza: Sure. For example, you can say.. میں آرٹ میں دلچسپی رکهتا ہوں.
Dana: .. which means "I have an interest in art."
Dana: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Dana: In this lesson, you'll learn about describing your interests and goals. We’ll also see passive and active voice.
Hamza: Active and passive voice are important things to know.
Dana: Yes. So let’s start by looking at the passive voice.
Hamza: This is often used to talk about things that we like and dislike.
Dana: How do we say “I like doing (blank)”?
Hamza: mujhay verb-Na pasand hai
Dana: So “I like singing” would be...
Hamza: مجھے گانا پسند ہے
Dana: or, literally, "Singing is appealing to me."
Hamza: This is passive because the pronoun, "me", مجھے mujhay is the subject and not the object of the sentence.
Dana: How do we make an active voice sentence that means the same?
Hamza: میں گانا پسند کرتا ہوں
Dana: This is active and the main verb is not actually “sing”, it is “to do.”
Hamza: Yes, kerta hun from کرنا kerna "to do." We use this active sentence mainly in formal Urdu. We can also use it to talk about your work and skills.
Dana: How do we make sentences in the present continuous?
Hamza: If we are talking about a verb, like with "singing", it has to be in the infinitive form. If it is a noun, it must be paired with a transitive verb, such as کرنا kerna “to do”.
Dana: Can you give us a couple of examples of verbs?
Hamza: The verb for “to read” would be پڑھنا perhna and “to build” is بنانا banana
Dana: How about using nouns?
Hamza: ورزش کرنا warzish kerna is “to do exercise”— the same as "to exercise"—and بلاگ لکهنا blog Likhna is “to write a blog,” or simply "to blog".
Dana: Can you give us an example sentence?
Hamza: میں ورزش کرنا پسند کرتا ہوں.
Dana: "I like to exercise."
Hamza: There are other words we can use in place of پسند pasand, meaning "like", to express our interests or goals. For example, امید umeed, which indicates "desire" or "ambition."
Dana: Can you give us an example sentence with that?
Hamza: میں اپنی کمپنی بنانے کی امید رکهتا ہوں
Dana: This means "I hope to create my own company," or, more literally, “I nurse the desire of creating my own company.”
Hamza: Here is another word. اراده irada, which means "intention."
Dana: Please give us a sample sentence.
Hamza: میرا ارادہ ٹیم کے تعلقات کو مضبوط بنانے کا ہے
Dana: This means "My intention is to make the team bonding stronger."
Hamza: Listeners, make sure to check the Lesson Notes for more examples and additional related vocabulary.
Dana: You’ll find useful sentence patterns for talking about your interests and goals.

Outro

Dana: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Hamza: پهر ملیں گے! (Phir milenge!)