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Lesson Transcript

INTRODUCTION
John:
Hi everyone, and welcome back to UrduPod101.com. This is Absolute Beginner, Season 1 Lesson 25 - The Present Continuous in Urdu. I’m John.
Afrah:
Assalam u alaikum, I'm Afrah.
John:
In this lesson you'll learn how to say things in the present continuous form, for example, "I am doing," "I am saying," and so on.
Afrah:
The conversation takes place in a classroom.
John:
The conversation is between Ali and Sarah.
Afrah:
They are friends, so they’ll be speaking informally.
John:
Let's listen to their conversation.

Lesson conversation

علی:
آپ کیا کر رہی ہیں؟
سارہ:
میں بول رہی ہوں.
علی:
آپ انگریزی میں بات نہیں کر رہی ہیں. استاد سن رہے ہیں!
سارہ:
اوہ، مجھے پتہ نہیں تھا.
John:
Now let's listen to the same conversation at a slow speed.
علی:
آپ کیا کر رہی ہیں؟
سارہ:
میں بول رہی ہوں.
علی:
آپ انگریزی میں بات نہیں کر رہی ہیں. استاد سن رہے ہیں!
سارہ:
اوہ، مجھے پتہ نہیں تھا.
John:
Let's now listen to the conversation with the English translation.
Ali:
Aap kia ker rahi hain?
John:
"What are you doing?"
Sarah:
Main bol rahi hun.
John:
"I am speaking."
Ali:
Aap angrezi mei baat nahi ker rahi hain. Ustad sun rahay hain!
John:
"You're not speaking in English. The teacher is listening!"
Sarah:
Oh, mujhe pataa naheen thaa.
John:
"Oh, I didn't know."
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Afrah:
You know, in the conversation Ali is reminding Sarah to speak in English.
John:
Yes, is that normal in Pakistani schools?
Afrah:
In a way, yes, because a lot schools teach English.
John:
So they're like international schools?
Afrah:
Well, not quite. Most local schools are also structured to hold classes in English. We're talking not only about special English classes once a day, but actually teaching every subject in English.
John:
What about Urdu then?
Afrah:
Well, of course, they have Urdu classes too.
John:
I see.
VOCAB LIST
John:
Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is...
Afrah:
آپ [natural native speed]
John:
you
Afrah:
aap [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
aap [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
کیا [natural native speed]
John:
what [natural native speed]
Afrah:
kia [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
kia [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
کر رہی [natural native speed]
John:
doing (feminine)
Afrah:
ker rahi [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
ker rahi [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
بول رہی [natural native speed]
John:
speaking (feminine)
Afrah:
bol rahi [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
bol rahi [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
انگریزی [natural native speed]
John:
English
Afrah:
angrezi [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
angrezi [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
استاد [natural native speed]
John:
teacher
Afrah:
ustad [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
ustad [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
سن رہے [natural native speed]
John:
listening (masculine, plural)
Afrah:
sun rahay [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
sun rahay [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
اوہ [natural native speed]
John:
oh
Afrah:
oh [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
oh [natural native speed]
John:
Next we have...
Afrah:
نہیں [natural native speed]
John:
not
Afrah:
nahin [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
nahin [natural native speed]
John:
And last...
Afrah:
Mujhay [natural native speed]
John:
to me
Afrah:
mujhay [slowly - broken down by syllable]
Afrah:
mujhay [natural native speed]
KEY VOCABULARY AND PHRASES
John:
Let's now go over some of these words in more detail.
Afrah:
We've come across the word کیا which means "what."
John:
But oftentimes, when it’s used at the beginning of a sentence, it no longer means "what." It just becomes a way to ask a question. For example, let's look at the sentence "Are you eating?"
Afrah:
In Urdu, the sentence is کیا تم کھا رہے ہو؟ The literal translation is, "What you eating?" but it translates as "Are you eating?"
John:
Whereas the same question with a slightly different word order will have a completely different meaning.
Afrah:
Yes, so, "What are you eating?" in Urdu is آپ کیا کھا رہے ہیں؟
John:
Its literal translation is, "You what eating?" and translates as "What are you eating?"
Afrah:
So here, کیا came after آپ and not before the beginning of the sentence.
John:
Let's hear the two examples side by side to make it clearer. The first question will be "Are you eating?" and the second one will be "What are you eating?"
Afrah:
کیا تم کھا رہے ہو؟ and the next آپ کیا کھا رہے ہیں؟
John:
Let's listen to another example.
Afrah:
کیا آپ گا رہے ہیں؟
John:
“Are you singing?”
Afrah:
In this sentence, since کیا comes at the very beginning, it tells us that it doesn't necessarily mean "what." So its translation is "Are you singing?"
John:
“What are you singing” would be...
Afrah:
آپ کیا گا رہے ہیں؟
John:
This might sound a little confusing but as long as you get used to the sentence formations and recognize them, you'll have no problem.

Lesson focus

John:
Now in this lesson, we'll learn how to make sentences using the present continuous tense. This tense is the "-ing" form that shows an ongoing action. Let's start with an example. "I am singing" in Urdu is…
Afrah:
میں گا رہا ہوں Here, میں means "I," گا means "to sing," ہوں means "am," and رہا is the "-ing" part of the verb.
John:
Is there any rule for identifying verbs in Urdu?
Afrah:
All Urdu verbs end with a نا . This part of the verb in the present continuous sentence is always formed by removing the نا and adding ا
John:
Then you add the "-ing" part
Afrah:
رہا,
John:
which in this case denotes a male speaker.
Afrah:
Let's look at another verb جانا, which means "to go." So the verb we need for the present continuous tense is جا رہا.
John:
And if you’re male speaker and wanted to say "I am going home," you'd say…
Afrah:
میں گھر جا رہا ہوں
John:
Let's now look at how this "-ing" part of the present continuous changes according to the gender and number of the subject.
Afrah:
Okay, for singular masculine subjects you use رہا
John:
What about for plural masculine?
Afrah:
For plural masculine subjects, you use رہے.
John:
For both singular and plural feminine subjects, you use
Afrah:
رہی.
John:
Let's have some example sentences. In Urdu, "What is he saying?" is…
Afrah:
وہ کیا کہہ رہا ہے
John:
"What is she saying?" is…
Afrah:
وہ کیا کہہ رہی ہے
John:
Next sentence, "What are they saying?" in Urdu is
Afrah:
وہ کیا کہہ رہے ہیں؟ Notice again how وہ, which means "they," took the plural form رہے ہیں.

Outro

John:
Okay, that’s all for this lesson and this series. Thank you for listening everyone, and we’ll see you next time!
Afrah:
Shukriya aur phir milenge!

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